9May

What-if:披萨快递鸟

时间: 2016-5-9 分类: 涨姿势拓视野 作者: XD

TAGS: ,

语言:   大陆 港澳 台湾

引用元:http://what-if.xkcd.com/149/


 

Pizza Bird

披萨快递鸟

 

What-if:披萨快递鸟

 

My boyfriend recently took a flight on a plane with wifi, and while he was up there, wistfully asked if I could send him a pizza. I jokingly sent him a photo of a parrot holding a pizza slice in its beak. Obviously, my boyfriend had to go without pizza until he landed at JFK. But this raised the question: could a bird deliver a standard 20″ New York-style cheese pizza in a box? And if so, what kind of bird would it take?

—Tina Nguyen

我男朋友最近乘坐的的飞机上开始提供wifi,当他坐上飞机后,发消息说希望我能送份披萨给他,我玩笑的发了一张一只鹦鹉叼着一块披萨的图给他。显然,我男朋友只有到了肯尼迪机场后才能吃到披萨,但是我还是想问一下:有没有一种鸟能够快递一份20英寸的纽约奶酪风味披萨,如果有,它是哪一种鸟呢?

- 蒂娜 阮

 

A bird could, possibly, deliver a pizza to a house. Delivering it to an airliner is a lot harder.

用一只鸟送份披萨到家里还是有可能的,但是,送到飞机上就比较困难了。

 

What-if:披萨快递鸟

Image courtesy Domino’s delivery tracker

想象一下免费的达美乐披萨订单追踪服务

 

A 20-inch pizza weighs about 1.8 kg.[1]That’s about 100 times the weight of a sparrow, so we’re definitely going to need a large bird. There are all sorts of birds bigger than our pizza, including eagles, swans, cranes, pelicans, and albatrosses. However, some of them would do better at pizza delivery than others. To see why, let’s take a look at wing shapes.

一份20寸的披萨重约1.8KG[1]。这大约有100只麻雀那么重,所以我们肯定要用一只大鸟了。像鹰、天鹅、鹤、鹈鹕、信天翁,都比我们的披萨要大。其中的某些鸟类会比其他鸟类更适合干送披萨的活。至于为什么,让我们看看这些鸟的翼型。

 

 

What-if:披萨快递鸟

Scary, nuclear-armed falcons.

卧槽,核动力猎鹰

 
[1]Citation: I just ordered a pizza to check. I usually steer clear of experimental science in these articles, but am willing to make an exception when it involves eating a bunch of pizza.
[1]注:我刚刚订了份披萨来验证一下。我通常不会因为这些文章去做验证实验,但是如果能吃到披萨我还是挺愿意破例一次。

 

Birds have different types of wings depending on what kind of flying they need to do. Of all the types of wings, the ones best suited for pizza delivery are probably the relatively short-and-broad kind found on many soaring hawks and eagles.[2][3] These wings are good for taking off while carrying a heavy load, which is of course necessary for pizza delivery.

鸟类有什么样的翼型取决于它们自身的飞行习惯。这些翼型中,最适合快递披萨的可能是像鹰那样的短而宽的那种翼型[2][3]。这种翼型比较适合携带重物起飞,这对于快递披萨是非常必要的。

 
[2]Long, thin wings, like those of a gull or albatross, are more aerodynamically efficient in many ways. However, these wings are harder to flap, which makes it difficult for these birds to accelerate quickly. Albatrosses require long “runways” to build up speed before they can lift off.
[2]像海鸥和信天翁的长而细的翼型虽然更加符合空气动力学,会更有效率,但是这种翼型更难扇动,造成这种鸟类不易加速。信天翁在起飞前需要一段很长的“跑道”来使自己达到起飞速度。
[3]Here’s a live feed of some baby albatrosses nesting in Hawaii.
[3]这里有一些夏威夷信天翁幼鸟的直播视频

 

The largest birds of prey in North America[4]are the bald eagles[5] and golden eagles, which weigh about 4 or 5 kilograms when fully grown. The famous viral video of a golden eagle snatching a toddler is fake, but eagles have been seen to lift some awfully heavy things. Last year, photographer Alex Lamine saw a bald eagle in Georgia carrying a 12-pound (5.4 kg) tree branch, presumably to add to its gigantic nest. The eagle dropped the branch before making it back to the nest, but it definitely proved the bird was capable of flying—at least briefly—while carrying a load equal to its own body weight.

北美最大的鸟类捕食者[4]是白头海雕[5]和金雕。这些鸟类成年后体重能达到4-5公斤,虽然在网上大肆传播的那个金雕叼走一个蹒跚学步的婴儿的视频是假的,但是,金雕确实被观察到能够叼走这么重的东西。去年,摄影师亚历克斯·拉明在佐治亚州目击到一只白头海雕携带一根 重达12磅(5.4KG)的树枝,应该是用来筑巢的材料。这只白头海雕在回巢之前放弃了这根树枝,但是这个足以证明白头海雕至少是可以短暂的携带和自己体重相等的重物飞行,

 
[4]Not counting the California condor, which isn’t very good at the kind of hard flapping required to lift heavy loads. And anyway, there are only a few hundred of them in the world—up from 22 in the early 1990′s—so someone would definitely notice if you took some for pizza delivery.
[4]这里不包括加州神鹫,它不擅长携带重物飞行。而且在90年代的时候仅存22只,现在也才恢复到几百只,如果你拿了几只去快递披萨,肯定会被查水表的。
[5]Here’s a live feed of a bald eagle nest in the US National Arboretum.)
[5]这里是美国国家植物园里的一些白头海雕巢的直播视频

 

As a general rule, though, birds of prey won’t try to pick up more than about half of their own weight. This means a half-kilogram peregrine falcon[6] couldn’t pick up our 2-kilogram pizza. A 5-kilogram eagle, on the other hand, probably could.

但是,在一般情况下,鸟类当中的捕食者不会叼起超过自身体重一半的东西。所以半公斤重的游隼[6]肯定是带不动2公斤的披萨的。但是5公斤的鹰类就没有什么问题。

 

What-if:披萨快递鸟

This place offers some weird toppings

这里提供了一些奇怪的配料。

 
[6]Here’s a live feed of a peregrine falcon nest box in Arizona.
[6]这里是亚利桑那州的游隼的 直播视频

 

However, picking up a pizza is one thing, but what about delivering it to an airliner?

然而,拿起披萨只完成了任务的一部分,但是如何将披萨送上飞机呢?

 

Soaring birds like vultures—and eagles—can ride thermals[7] to extreme heights. In tropical regions, where the sunlight-powered thermals are strongest, planes have encountered[8] soaring at altitudes of over 10 kilometers. That’s high enough to reach a cruising airliner—but, unfortunately, this kind of soaring flight requires ideal flying conditions. “Having a pizza strapped to you” is definitely not that.

像秃鹫和老鹰这种可以滑翔的鸟类能够借助上升气流[7] 达到非常高的地方。在光照很强的热带区域,有很强的上升气流,有些飞行员在10千米的高空上遇到[8]过翱翔的黑白兀鷲。这种高度足以达到飞机的巡航高度了,但不幸的是,要达到这种高度,得是在理想的飞行条件下,“系着爱心披萨”肯定算不上理想情况。

 
[7]Thermals, warm columns of rising air, are a phenomenon familiar to both glider pilots and fans of the Animorphs book series.
[7]上升气流是一种上升的热对流。滑翔机驾驶员和《动物变形人》系列的粉丝们对这种现象会很熟悉。
[8]一脸懵B.jpg
[8]一脸懵逼.jpg(XD:这里遇到了一个特殊字符,保存会失败,遇到这个问题我也是一脸懵逼的。)

 

So a bird could potentially carry a pizza, but it couldn’t fly up to an airliner with it. That’s just as well, because there’s one more major problem you’d face: Speed.

所以鸟类可能能带起一份披萨,但是带着披萨是飞不到飞机所在的高度的。这其实都是小问题,因为还有个更大的问题你得解决:速度。

 

Whether or not a bird can fly as high as an airliner, it definitely can’t fly as fast. Even if the person in the plane managed to get the emergency door open, they’d have to find a way to grab the pizza.

不论鸟类能不能达到飞机所在的高度,鸟是肯定达不到飞机的速度。即使有人打开了应急舱门,他还是没有办法拿到披萨。

 

If you tip a pizza box too far, the cheese runs off one side. This critical angle varies from pizza to pizza and depends greatly on temperature, but let’s suppose it’s about 45°. That angle tells us that a pizza can handle a maximum sideways acceleration of about 1g.[9](Assuming you’ve managed to keep the pizza warm at those high altitudes—because what kind of a monster delivers a cold pizza?)To accelerate up to an airliner cruising speed of 500 mph, we’ll need the acceleration to happen over a distance of over a mile. In other words, we’d need a mile-long mechanism trailing behind the plane to gently reel in the pizza.

如果披萨盒倾斜角太大,披萨里的奶酪就会流出来,这个临界角度的大小很大程度上取决于温度,不过就让我们假设这个角度为45度吧。通过这个角度,我们可以计算出披萨能够承受的最大的横向加速度约为1G[9]。加速到飞机的巡航速度500英里每小时,加速距离要超过1英里。换句话说,我们需要在飞机后面加装一个一英里长的装置来保证披萨安全登机。

 
[9]Assuming you’ve managed to keep the pizza warm at those high altitudes—because what kind of a monster delivers a cold pizza?
[9]假设你能保证披萨在高空中仍然是热的,毕竟有哪个丧心病狂的快递会送一份冷披萨。

 

What-if:披萨快递鸟

GET OFF MY PLANE. Then get a pizza and get back on.

荡下去,拿到披萨,再荡回来。

 

But wait—those calculations assume sideways acceleration. Pizzas—like humans—handle “face-first” acceleration best. If the pizza were rotated during the handoff, it could survive a much greater acceleration, allowing the grabbing mechanism to be smaller.

但是等等,这些计算是基于横向加速度的,像宇航员那样躺着加速当然是最好的。但是如果披萨在传递的过程中能够旋转,它就能承受更大的加速度,从而减小抓取装置的体积。

 

What kind of face-first acceleration can a pizza survive before it spreads out to fill the bottom of the box? I haven’t found any data on that, but if anyone wants to try to sneak a pizza into a centrifuge, go for it. Be sure to take pictures!

那么这个能让这个披萨在变成一团浆糊之前的最大加速度是多少呢?抱歉,我没找到相关的资料,不过如果有人想偷偷将披萨放入离心机里面,不要犹豫,然后把照片发过来。

 

All in all, if you’re in a plane and feel the urge to order a pizza, it’s probably easier to just wait until you land. Then, if you really want, you can try to get a bird to deliver it.

总而言之,如果你想在飞机上想订份披萨,最简单的方法是等到飞机降落。但是如果你真的很想要,你可以尝试让鸟儿给你送过来。

 

What-if:披萨快递鸟

BREAKING: America reverses all bald eagle conservation efforts after learning they fold pizza slices to eat them.

爆炸性新闻:当得知白头海雕学会卷起披萨吃下去后,美国撤销了对白头海雕的保护。

 

But don’t be surprised if some slices go missing along the way.

不过,如果发现你的披萨少了那么几块,也请不要惊讶。

 


XD:更换的注释的位置,大家感觉如何?


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Comments
已有 10 条评论 新浪微博
  1. 好像大学论文w

    2016年5月17日 12:02来自QQ 回复
  2. 脑残粉

    我到底该不该认真看待这系列

    2016年5月11日 10:01来自移动端1 回复
  3. 打伞的大姐姐

    把注释放最后也行?或者让lu大做跳转?按1跳到注释,按注释的1回去?

    2016年5月10日 22:35来自iPhone1 回复
  4. 这个字体颜色刚好介于看的到的边缘不至于要反白,但是要看的话又有点模糊。。。下次还是别这么干了吧。。。

    2016年5月10日 20:51 回复
    • XD

      其实是希望你选中看的,但是大家都不喜欢的话,我下次就不这样做了

      2016年5月10日 22:02 回复
      • 百合控

        手机上看倒是还行,不知道电脑上如何

        2016年5月11日 23:22来自移动端 回复
  5. 约束の地

    哪些需要反白的字 是故意弄成那样的吗····

    2016年5月10日 13:50来自QQ 回复
    • XD

      反白里的内容是原作者注释里的内容,是隐藏的,你需要点一下才能看到。

      2016年5月10日 16:271 回复
  6. Magichp

    话说为什么要让鸟追飞机而不是让鸟从目的地飞向飞机呢?

    2016年5月10日 13:412 回复
    • 匿名

      方便討論?畢竟不管怎樣鳥與飛機都必須要以同向前進
      不然相對速度的問題只會讓披撒的安全抵達更加困難,或引發駭人聽聞的鳥擊空難事件
      ….請不要吐槽XD

      2016年5月10日 14:54 回复
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