5May

What-if:如何等效的吃下一个太阳

时间: 2016-5-5 分类: 涨姿势拓视野 作者: XD

TAGS: ,

语言:   大陆 港澳 台湾

引用元:http://what-if.xkcd.com/148/


 

Eat the Sun

如何等效的吃下一个太阳

 

What-if:如何等效的吃下一个太阳

 

What percentage of the Sun’s heat (per day) does the population of Earth eat in calories per year? What changes could be made to our diets for the amount of calories to equal the energy of the Sun?

—James Mitchell

人类每年食用的卡路里占太阳每天辐射出的热量的多少?如何改变我们的食谱使得我们吃下去的卡路里等于太阳辐射出的能量?

—詹姆斯 米切尔

 

0.000000000065%.

0.000000000065%.

 

What-if:如何等效的吃下一个太阳

Life goal: Have enough Cadbury creme eggs to determine the precise value for their angle of repose.

人生目标:拥有足够多的吉百利奶油蛋来测出它的精确休止角

 

A McDonald’s Big Mac contains 540 (dietary) calories of energy, or about 2,250,000 joules. The Sun’s output is

382,800,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 joules per second.[1] That’s enough to tell us that we’re going to have a hard time catching up with the Sun by eating more burgers.

一个麦当劳巨无霸汉堡里含有540卡路里的能量,约等于2250000焦耳[1]。而太阳每秒钟输出382800000000000000000000000焦耳的能量。我想这个足以说明光靠吃汉堡包来赶上太阳释放的能量是没有什么卵用的。

 

Why is this so difficult?

为啥这么困难呢?

 

Most of the Sun’s mass is concentrated in the core, where energy is released as hydrogen fuses into helium. By volume, the Sun’s core doesn’t actually produce that much energy—a blob of core matter produces about the same amount of energy as the body heat of a reptile of the same size,[2] and less than a warmer-bodied mammal. The Sun is hotter than a reptile[citation needed] because it’s so large—all that heat adds up.[3]

太阳的绝大部分质量是包含在其核心当中的,这里也是氢核聚变产生能量的场所。不过从体积上来说,太阳的核心其实并没有产生多少能量,一小撮太阳核心物质产生的能量和同等体积的爬行动物产生的能量差不多[2],比同等大小的恒温哺乳动物产生的能量还要少。太阳比爬行动物要热[来源请求]是因为它太大了,这些热量加起来就很可观了。[3]

 

What-if:如何等效的吃下一个太阳

Your screen is just a bit too small to show the full drawing.

你屏幕太小,显示不了全部图像。

 

Reptiles may produce heat at approximately the same rate as the stuff in the Sun, but if a reptile doesn’t eat for a few weeks or months, it runs out of energy and starves. The Sun, on the other hand, has been burning for billions of years and will last for billions more—because nuclear fusion produces much more energy than metabolizing fat or muscle.

爬行动物产热的速率与太阳核心物质产热速率大致相同,但是爬行动物如果几个月不吃不喝,它就会饿死。不过太阳嘛,它已经烧了几十亿年了,而且还会再烧个几十亿年,因为核聚变产生的能量要比脂肪或肌肉新陈代谢产生的能量多的多。

 

How much more? Strangely, we can come up with a pretty decent estimate just from what we know about animals. Animals live a few weeks—or months, in the case of some snakes—on their own stored reserves, while the Sun will last about 10 billion years. That’s a difference of about 100 billion-fold. This is roughly similar to the ratio between the energy stored in a snake-meat Big Mac and the energy stored in a Big Mac-sized chunk of the Sun’s core.[5]

那有多少呢?不可思议地的是,我们通过已经了解的动物就能够做出一个精确的估计。动物可以使用储存的脂肪活上几个星期,某些蛇类甚至能活上几个月,而太阳的寿命有100亿年。储存在“太阳核心巨无霸”汉堡中的能量大约是储存在“蛇肉巨无霸”汉堡中能量的1000亿倍。

 

What-if:如何等效的吃下一个太阳

There was that unfortunate year when they brought back the McRib without remembering that it was supposed to be rib MEAT.

不幸的是,并没有人记得烤汁猪扒堡里并没有猪肋条肉。

 

If we want to eat enough food to keep up with the Sun’s energy-use rate, we have to eat a lot more. A typical person eats a few thousand calories per day, and we probably can’t improve on that too much—we can’t all be The Rock. To keep up with the Sun, what we really need is more people.

如果我们仅仅通过吃来赶上太阳的能量消耗,那我们还真的要吃不少。一个正常人一天要摄取几千卡路里的能量,而且我们也可能提高不了多少,毕竟大家不都是巨石强森。所以我们要跟上太阳的消耗,就只有上更多的人了。

 

At the end of this article, we imagined a galaxy full of habitable planets, each one hosting 7 billion clones of former solicitor general Ted Olson. (Don’t ask.) If the Teds ate a normal diet, the total calorie consumption of that galaxy would still fall short of the Sun. We’d need approximately a thousand galaxies worth of burger-eating Ted Olsons to achieve our goal.

这篇文章的最后,我们假设整个银河系充满了宜居星球,每个星球上都居住着70亿个前检察长泰德·奥尔森(别问为什么)的克隆体。如果泰德按正常水平饮食,那么整个银河系的能量消耗还是远远落后于太阳的消耗。我们大概需要一千个吃汉堡的泰德·奥尔森星系才能达到我们的目标。

 

It’s important to spread this food consumption out across multiple galaxies, because if you gathered all that food in once place, you’d have a big problem. Since food has such a low energy density compared to the Sun, you need a lot of food to keep up with the Sun. Matching a few days’ worth of Sun output would require a sphere of hamburgers the size of the Earth, and keeping up with the Sun over its entire lifetime would take a pile of burgers much larger than the Sun. In fact, it would be heavier than the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy.[6]

如何在多个星系之间运输这些食物也很重要,因为如果你把这些食物收集到一起,你会发现你的麻烦大了。由于食物的能量密度和太阳比起来,实在是太低,你需要很多很多的食物才能赶上太阳的消耗。太阳几天的消耗就和一个地球那么大的汉堡差不多,如果要满足整个太阳生命周期的能量消耗,这堆汉堡要比太阳本身还大。事实上,这堆汉堡的质量要比银河系中心的那个超级黑洞的还大。

 

The bottom line: If you want to keep up with the Sun’s output by feeding people burgers, you’ll need to open some intergalactic franchises.

I suppose you may have trouble convincing people to buy into a franchise that serves fast food exclusively to people who are comfortable filing huge lawsuits.

结论:如果通过给人们喂汉堡来赶上太阳的消耗,你可能要开一家星际连锁店。我想你可能很难劝说人们加盟一家只为一个对提起大型诉讼感兴趣的人服务的快餐店。

What-if:如何等效的吃下一个太阳

 


[1] Also known as watts. This is a rare case of a common-in-America unit which is secretly SI-friendly. Of course, we immediately worked our way around to measuring stored energy in kWh (and mAh), and now everything is terrible again.

也就是瓦特(但是焦耳是能量单位,瓦特是功率单位,我书读得少,你不要骗我)。这是很少见的美制单位和国际制单位符合的这么好的情况。当然,我们马上用千瓦时(和毫安)进行能量的计算时,事情就又变的恐怖起来了。

 

[2]A Wikipedia factoid also compares the Sun’s heat-per-unit-volume to the heat produced by an active compost pile, although the energy production from compost varies with temperature—since a hot compost pile kills off the organisms that do the composting.

维基百科上有个词条把单位体积的太阳物质和堆肥释放能量作对比,不过堆肥产生的能量和温度有关,因为高温会杀死堆肥当中的起作用的微生物。

 

[3]A large object also has more surface area to radiate heat away, but since surface area is proportional to radius^2 while the amount of heat-producing material is proportional to radius^3, making things bigger generally makes them hotter.

虽然越大的物体就有越大的表面积用来散热,但是由于表面积与半径的平方成正比,而体积与半径的立方成正比,总得来说,物体越大,平均物质的散热面积越小,物体越热。(哺乳动物中除了人不长毛外,大象也不长毛,大家知道为什么了吗?)

 

[5]If you calculate out the exact actual ratios here, you’ll find that the sun-to-big-mac energy ratio is a bit lower than the sun-to-lizard lifespan ratio. This is partly explained by the fact that animals are full of bones and brains and stuff, and can’t efficiently consume their entire body volume as if they were a giant Big Mac.

如果你要在这里仔细的计算一下的话,你会发现太阳与巨无霸汉堡的能量比要比太阳与蜥蜴寿命比的比率要低一些。这部份误差的原因是动物体内还有骨头和大脑等组织,这部分东西并不能有效的消耗能量(口胡中…)。

 

[6]Which would promptly create a new black hole. And possibly a new center of the galaxy, for all I know, although I’d want to play with Universe Sandbox for a while before making any sort of guess about how that would play out.

据我所知,这会产生一个新的黑洞,甚至改变银河系的中心点。我想在我乱猜之前先在宇宙沙盘里模拟一下,看看会出什么结果。

 

[7]然而并没有[4]Orz

 


我是新来的翻译君,主攻印欧语系(英语限定)

以后会翻译一些有趣的科普文章,希望大家能在娱乐中学习到知识(然而并不能)

那么,请多指教了


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Comments
已有 10 条评论 新浪微博
  1. 炤炤穆穆

    我到底看了个啥。。。

    2016年5月7日 09:14来自移动端2 回复
  2. rjcbsaj

    赞美太阳吧!!

    2016年5月6日 15:36来自iPhone 回复
  3. 777

    诶,我到底看了什么

    2016年5月6日 14:14来自移动端 回复
  4. 打伞的大姐姐

    黑体辐射就变成了汉堡包www

    2016年5月6日 10:02来自iPhone 回复
  5. 脑残粉

    我到底看了什么

    2016年5月6日 00:49来自移动端 回复
  6. 开始翻译what if了! 以前看煎蛋就喜欢这个系列

    2016年5月5日 22:44来自新浪微博2 回复
  7. CupcakeWOW

    這種一本道的文章莫名的有意思wwww

    2016年5月5日 22:441 回复
  8. lance6716

    what if有松鼠会翻译啊

    2016年5月5日 22:41来自移动端3 回复
    • XD

      嗯,不过当时和lu大说翻译这篇时,松鼠会还没翻到这篇。而且我只是喜欢就去做而已

      2016年5月5日 23:182 回复
  9. 这种短的做成长图发微博会有更多人看吧…

    2016年5月5日 22:18来自新浪微博 回复
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